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Turkey39°N 35°ECoordinatesTurkey39°N 35°E
Largest cityIstanbul
Turkey41°1′N 28°57′E
Official languagesTurkish[1][2]
Spoken languages[3]
Ethnic groups

  • Turkish
  • Turk
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Fuat Oktay
Mustafa Şentop
LegislatureGrand National Assembly
19 May 1919
23 April 1920
24 July 1923
29 October 1923
9 November 1982[5]
• Total
783,356 km2 (302,455 sq mi) (36th)
• Water (%)
2.03 (as of 2015)[6]
• 31 December 2020 estimate
Neutral increase 83,614,362[7] (19th)
• Density
109[7]/km2 (282.3/sq mi) (107th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $2.749 trillion[8] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $32,278[8] (45th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $794.530 billion[8] (20th)
• Per capita
Increase $9,327[8] (67th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 39.7[9]
medium · 56th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.820[10]
very high · 54th
CurrencyTurkish lira (₺) (TRY)
Time zoneUTC+3 (TRT)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz
Driving sideright
Calling code+90
ISO 3166 codeTR

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